Leviticus 16:1-34

The idea of these little devotionals is simple. I want to approach scripture with the understanding that God is speaking. I’m reading through the Bible and listening for God to ask me questions. I expect these questions to be fairly open-ended and plan to carry them in my mind throughout the day. I’ll share these questions with you in the hope that you find them challenging and helpful.

We’re going to be going through a section of scripture where the details may make your reading feel a little tedious…and your stomach a little queasy. Please do your best NOT to skim. Let the images sink in. God made sure this material was preserved and included. Let’s see if we can see why…

Leviticus 16:1-34
The Lord spoke to Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they drew near before the Lord and died,
and the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron your brother not to come at any time into the Holy Place inside the veil, before the mercy seat that is on the ark, so that he may not die. For I will appear in the cloud over the mercy seat. But in this way Aaron shall come into the Holy Place: with a bull from the herd for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering. He shall put on the holy linen coat and shall have the linen undergarment on his body, and he shall tie the linen sash around his waist, and wear the linen turban; these are the holy garments. He shall bathe his body in water and then put them on. And he shall take from the congregation of the people of Israel two male goats for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering.

“Aaron shall offer the bull as a sin offering for himself and shall make atonement for himself and for his house. Then he shall take the two goats and set them before the Lord at the entrance of the tent of meeting. And Aaron shall cast lots over the two goats, one lot for the Lord and the other lot for Azazel.[a] And Aaron shall present the goat on which the lot fell for the Lord and use it as a sin offering, 10 but the goat on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presented alive before the Lord to make atonement over it, that it may be sent away into the wilderness to Azazel.

11 “Aaron shall present the bull as a sin offering for himself, and shall make atonement for himself and for his house. He shall kill the bull as a sin offering for himself. 12 And he shall take a censer full of coals of fire from the altar before the Lord, and two handfuls of sweet incense beaten small, and he shall bring it inside the veil 13 and put the incense on the fire before the Lord, that the cloud of the incense may cover the mercy seat that is over the testimony, so that he does not die. 14 And he shall take some of the blood of the bull and sprinkle it with his finger on the front of the mercy seat on the east side, and in front of the mercy seat he shall sprinkle some of the blood with his finger seven times.

15 “Then he shall kill the goat of the sin offering that is for the people and bring its blood inside the veil and do with its blood as he did with the blood of the bull, sprinkling it over the mercy seat and in front of the mercy seat. 16 Thus he shall make atonement for the Holy Place, because of the uncleannesses of the people of Israel and because of their transgressions, all their sins. And so he shall do for the tent of meeting, which dwells with them in the midst of their uncleannesses. 17 No one may be in the tent of meeting from the time he enters to make atonement in the Holy Place until he comes out and has made atonement for himself and for his house and for all the assembly of Israel. 18 Then he shall go out to the altar that is before the Lord and make atonement for it, and shall take some of the blood of the bull and some of the blood of the goat, and put it on the horns of the altar all around. 19 And he shall sprinkle some of the blood on it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it and consecrate it from the uncleannesses of the people of Israel.

20 “And when he has made an end of atoning for the Holy Place and the tent of meeting and the altar, he shall present the live goat. 21 And Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over it all the iniquities of the people of Israel, and all their transgressions, all their sins. And he shall put them on the head of the goat and send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a man who is in readiness. 22 The goat shall bear all their iniquities on itself to a remote area, and he shall let the goat go free in the wilderness.

23 “Then Aaron shall come into the tent of meeting and shall take off the linen garments that he put on when he went into the Holy Place and shall leave them there. 24 And he shall bathe his body in water in a holy place and put on his garments and come out and offer his burnt offering and the burnt offering of the people and make atonement for himself and for the people. 25 And the fat of the sin offering he shall burn on the altar. 26 And he who lets the goat go to Azazel shall wash his clothes and bathe his body in water, and afterward he may come into the camp. 27 And the bull for the sin offering and the goat for the sin offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the Holy Place, shall be carried outside the camp. Their skin and their flesh and their dung shall be burned up with fire. 28 And he who burns them shall wash his clothes and bathe his body in water, and afterward he may come into the camp.

29 “And it shall be a statute to you forever that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict yourselves[b] and shall do no work, either the native or the stranger who sojourns among you. 30 For on this day shall atonement be made for you to cleanse you. You shall be clean before the Lord from all your sins. 31 It is a Sabbath of solemn rest to you, and you shall afflict yourselves; it is a statute forever. 32 And the priest who is anointed and consecrated as priest in his father’s place shall make atonement, wearing the holy linen garments. 33 He shall make atonement for the holy sanctuary, and he shall make atonement for the tent of meeting and for the altar, and he shall make atonement for the priests and for all the people of the assembly. 34 And this shall be a statute forever for you, that atonement may be made for the people of Israel once in the year because of all their sins.” And Aaron[c] did as the Lord commanded Moses.

From this passage I hear God asking me:
Think about the word “atonement” today.
What is it?
What does it cost?
Did these people need it? Why?
Do you need it? Why?
How did these people get it?
How do you get it?

 

Music part 2 – Little Country Church

The (Christian) Music that Shaped Me – Part 2

Little Country Church

(I introduce this series here. In this series I’ll be sharing music that has been influential to me, personally. My hope is twofold: First, that some of my younger friends will be able to appreciate “from whence we’ve come” and to be encouraged to continue to seek fresh ways to communicate their faith through music. Second, that those of my generation will enjoy looking back a bit, but more than that, I pray that we will continue to recognize and encourage the creativity of today’s Christian musicians.)

In part one I talked about an album by a musical group whose influence on me would be hard to overestimate. I was part of a group for a number of years and we borrowed (read: stole) much of the Imperials music. We intentionally, and unapologetically, modeled our sound after them. We would sing songs from other sources but I would arrange these songs using ideas that I learned from listening to the Imperials.

I mentioned that, due to my geographical location and cultural niche, I was probably five years behind on what had been happening in Christian music.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, something was happening in California. (Isn’t it always?)

The “Jesus Movement” was born.

June 21, 1971

I think this is a fascinating moment in our culture. When people today think of the ‘60s, things like hippies, Woodstock, drugs, tie-dye, “free love,” psychedelia, and anti-war protests naturally come to mind. This was all very unsettling to most of the Christian leaders I knew. I came of age at a time when Christianity and patriotism went hand in hand. They were almost synonymous. (Sadly, for many this hasn’t changed, but it needs to.) So the “Turn on, tune in, drop out” culture of the hippies in the ‘60s was also seen as a rebellion from Christianity…and, in truth, often it was. A rebellion from the established church, at least.

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-zwXemBdZO2c/UgflNcZPtAI/AAAAAAAAFtk/0bPuGoGx27Y/s1600/life_jesus.png
June 30, 1972

But consider how the undiluted message of Jesus from scripture of peace, hope, and love for all mankind could be received in this climate! Jesus was speaking their language! Sadly, the church generally was not.

One notable exception was Pastor Chuck Smith of the Calvary Chapel in Costa Mesa, California. If you have time, I recommend this 14 minute video tribute to Chuck Smith to help paint a picture of what was happening at the time.  (About 47 seconds in he even talks about the group featured in this post.)

With more and more of the younger, “hippie” generation following Jesus, it only makes sense that they would bring their approach to music with them. This music was kind of raw and straightforward, like the secular music of the day. It had an irreverence and humor to it. Think Arlo Guthrie, or Country Joe and the Fish with clean language. It wasn’t as polished, musically. But what it lacked in production value it more than made up for with heart, passion and directness.

http://42796r1ctbz645bo223zkcdl.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Figure-8.2.jpg
Love Song c. 1972

Love Song was a band that grew from these roots. I first heard their records when I was a freshman in college. I believe their song, Little Country Church, was about Calvary Chapel. I also think, despite its lighthearted feel, it packs a message that is timeless. It spoke to me deeply at the time. The picture it paints in the second verse, of a group of diverse believers finding common ground in Christ, is the picture I held in my heart through my entire career as a worship minister.

 

I still believe it to be a worthy goal.

Lloyd


Little Country Church
(Chuck Girard/Fred Field)
©1971 Dunamis Music

Little country church on the edge of town
Doo-do- do-dn-do-do-do
People comin’ everyday from miles around
For meetin’s and for Sunday school
And it¹s very plain to see
It¹s not the way it used to be

Preacher isn’t talkin’ ’bout religion no more
He just wants to praise the Lord
People aren’t as stuffy as they were before
They just want to praise the Lord
And it¹s very plain to see
It’s not the way it used to be

They’re talkin’ ’bout revival and the need for love
That little church has come alive
Workin’ with each other for the common good
Puttin’ all the past aside
Long hair, short hair, some coats and ties
People finally comin’ around
Lookin’ past the hair and straight into the eyes
People finally comin’ around
And it¹s very plain to see
It’s not the way it used to be

 

 

My Picks for Tuesday 5-3-2016

Picks Tuesday

This is the stuff I found helpful, challenging, interesting, or amusing today that I think may enrich your day as well...

Trevin Wax offers some thoughtful and challenging questions. This issue is requires deeper thought than your Twitter feed will allow…

7 Troubling Questions About Transgender Theories
Trevin Wax
12796287433_a3c485ca27_o
Access to bathrooms and locker rooms may be the battleground, but the bigger debate concerns the nature of humanity and, by extension, the best way to approach (or treat) gender dysphoria.

These newfound controversies are complicated, at least in part because of transgender theory itself. The unmooring of “gender identity” from “biological sex” leads to a number of unresolved questions, as well as troubling inconsistencies among advocates of transgender rights. (I realize that not every transgender person or LGBTQ activist agrees on every point or holds to the same ideology. Still, there is broad agreement on a number of important issues.)

In my reading of articles and books about gender identity in the past year, I’ve come across seven issues that challenge the coherence of the transgender theories…”


I ‘feel’ like there is truth in this article…

Stop Saying ‘I Feel Like’Molly Worthen
“Yet here is the paradox: “I feel like” masquerades as a humble conversational offering, an invitation to share your feelings, too — but the phrase is an absolutist trump card. It halts argument in its tracks.

When people cite feelings or personal experience, “you can’t really refute them with logic, because that would imply they didn’t have that experience, or their experience is less valid,” Ms. Chai told me.

“It’s a way of deflecting, avoiding full engagement with another person or group,” Elisabeth Lasch-Quinn, a historian at Syracuse University, said, “because it puts a shield up immediately. You cannot disagree.”


I haven’t heard the music or seen the video, but enjoyed this review of Beyonce’s Lemonade

Bey and Bey’s GodAlissa Wilkinson
http://www.christianitytoday.com/images/69465.jpg?w=940
“The album’s first track, “Pray You’ll Catch Me,” finds the singer lurking at a door, trying to hear a whispered conversation. But the “prayer” also seems directed upward; in the film, she dives off a building, whispering to the heavens. So who is God, here?

The answer seems to be this: God is real (Beyoncé has famously proclaimed as much), a listening deity close to the despairing, the provider and protector of the weak. But sometimes men try to play God. They make themselves idols. And women get hurt…

… the song “Forward,” which includes images of Martin and Brown’s mothers, and gives way to “Freedom,” a full-on foot-stomping spiritual staged as a camp meeting at which a ballet dancer performs. We briefly see a crown of thorns, and the line: “I break chains all by myself / don’t let my freedom rot in hell.” You could see this as a proclamation of independence from God, except for its context with “Resurrection”—”You gotta call Jesus. You gotta call Him. You gotta call Him ‘cause you ain’t got another hope.”

…Is there anything orthodox about Lemonade? No. It draws on imagery from a variety of religious and non-religious sources; those bent on drawing a coherent theology from it will be frustrated; there’s plenty to quibble with. But its narrative of women’s freedom springs from an old, old story of freedom and reconciliation—a lesson as old as the human race.”


More wisdom from Seth Godin…

How to use a microphoneSeth Godin
“Shouting destroys intimacy, and it hurts our impact, the impact that comes from authenticity.

We feel speech and words long before we hear the words, and we hear the words long before we understand them.

The solution is simple: whisper.

Practice whispering.

Whisper when you type, whisper when you address a meeting.

Lower your voice, slow your pace, and talk more quietly.

The microphone will amplify your words. And we’ll hear them.


A 2016 Voting Guide…
http://bizarro.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/bz-panel-04-26-16a.jpg
Source: Bizarro

Leviticus 15:1-33

The idea of these little devotionals is simple. I want to approach scripture with the understanding that God is speaking. I’m reading through the Bible and listening for God to ask me questions. I expect these questions to be fairly open-ended and plan to carry them in my mind throughout the day. I’ll share these questions with you in the hope that you find them challenging and helpful.

We’re going to be going through a section of scripture where the details may make your reading feel a little tedious…and your stomach a little queasy. Please do your best NOT to skim. Let the images sink in. God made sure this material was preserved and included. Let’s see if we can see why…

Leviticus 13:1-33
The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, “Speak to the people of Israel and say to them, When any man has a discharge from his body,[a] his discharge is unclean. And this is the law of his uncleanness for a discharge: whether his body runs with his discharge, or his body is blocked up by his discharge, it is his uncleanness. Every bed on which the one with the discharge lies shall be unclean, and everything on which he sits shall be unclean. And anyone who touches his bed shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. And whoever sits on anything on which the one with the discharge has sat shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. And whoever touches the body of the one with the discharge shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. And if the one with the discharge spits on someone who is clean, then he shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. And any saddle on which the one with the discharge rides shall be unclean. 10 And whoever touches anything that was under him shall be unclean until the evening. And whoever carries such things shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 11 Anyone whom the one with the discharge touches without having rinsed his hands in water shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 12 And an earthenware vessel that the one with the discharge touches shall be broken, and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water.

13 “And when the one with a discharge is cleansed of his discharge, then he shall count for himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes. And he shall bathe his body in fresh water and shall be clean. 14 And on the eighth day he shall take two turtledoves or two pigeons and come before the Lord to the entrance of the tent of meeting and give them to the priest. 15 And the priest shall use them, one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering. And the priest shall make atonement for him before the Lord for his discharge.

16 “If a man has an emission of semen, he shall bathe his whole body in water and be unclean until the evening. 17 And every garment and every skin on which the semen comes shall be washed with water and be unclean until the evening. 18 If a man lies with a woman and has an emission of semen, both of them shall bathe themselves in water and be unclean until the evening.

19 “When a woman has a discharge, and the discharge in her body is blood, she shall be in her menstrual impurity for seven days, and whoever touches her shall be unclean until the evening. 20 And everything on which she lies during her menstrual impurity shall be unclean. Everything also on which she sits shall be unclean. 21 And whoever touches her bed shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 22 And whoever touches anything on which she sits shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 23 Whether it is the bed or anything on which she sits, when he touches it he shall be unclean until the evening. 24 And if any man lies with her and her menstrual impurity comes upon him, he shall be unclean seven days, and every bed on which he lies shall be unclean.

25 “If a woman has a discharge of blood for many days, not at the time of her menstrual impurity, or if she has a discharge beyond the time of her impurity, all the days of the discharge she shall continue in uncleanness. As in the days of her impurity, she shall be unclean. 26 Every bed on which she lies, all the days of her discharge, shall be to her as the bed of her impurity. And everything on which she sits shall be unclean, as in the uncleanness of her menstrual impurity. 27 And whoever touches these things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 28 But if she is cleansed of her discharge, she shall count for herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean. 29 And on the eighth day she shall take two turtledoves or two pigeons and bring them to the priest, to the entrance of the tent of meeting. 30 And the priest shall use one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering. And the priest shall make atonement for her before the Lord for her unclean discharge.

31 “Thus you shall keep the people of Israel separate from their uncleanness, lest they die in their uncleanness by defiling my tabernacle that is in their midst.”

32 This is the law for him who has a discharge and for him who has an emission of semen, becoming unclean thereby; 33 also for her who is unwell with her menstrual impurity, that is, for anyone, male or female, who has a discharge, and for the man who lies with a woman who is unclean.

From this passage I hear God asking me:
What does this chapter tell you about me?
Do you think I just like making up rules to make your life hard?
Isn’t it possible that I just care about your well being?
Isn’t it possible that this is at the heart of every one of my commands?

 

My Picks for Monday 5-2-2016

Picks Monday

This is the stuff I found helpful, challenging, interesting, or amusing today that I think may enrich your day as well...

A sobering reality check here, and some ways we can help…

Genocide Against Christians (And How the Church Can Help)
Ian Speir
https://mysteryoffaithblog.files.wordpress.com/2016/04/5472.jpg
“For those of us in the West, particularly the United States, it’s hard to think of Christians being jailed, tortured, and even killed for their faith.

The reality is, they are. Every day across the world, Christians are victims of mistreatment and violence. In fact, according to the Pew Research Center, Christians are the world’s most persecuted religious group.

Nowhere is this more true than in the Middle East, where failed governments create power vacuums in which extremists thrive. It’s a toxic environment for Christians, who are often seen as stand-ins for “the West.” In this region — in the very birthplace of their faith — Christian communities are disappearing at an alarming rate, leading even the New York Times to wonder, “Is This the End of Christianity in the Middle East?

What’s happening to Christians is no less than a genocide, and Iraq and Syria are ground zero…

…Here are four ways for you, your family, and your church to get involved right now in helping persecuted Christians in the Middle East and around the world…”


I find myself extremely disheartened about our current political landscape. If you are a follower of Jesus, I believe this is worthy of your consideration. This is just an excerpt. Follow the link for the entire text…

Called to Resist Bigotry — A Statement of Faithful Obedience
Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump speaks at Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia, on January 18, 2016. Photo courtesy of REUTERS/Joshua Roberts“At significant times in history, however, Christians from across the political spectrum come together around political realities that threaten the fundamental integrity of Christian faith and the well-being of society itself. Sometimes what is called politics raises moral crises, in which our faith is literally at stake in the way we respond.

We the undersigned believe this is one of those times, and that the churches in this country, and our country itself, face such a moral threat today. We are seeing the very worst values of our nation and its history on display with a vulgar message and style. A direct appeal to the racial, religious, and gender bigotry that is always under the surface of American politics is now being brought to painful public light.

The ascendancy of a demagogic candidate and his message, with the angry constituency he is fueling, is a threat to both the values of our faith and the health of our democracy. Donald Trump directly promotes racial and religious bigotry, disrespects the dignity of women, harms civil public discourse, offends moral decency, and seeks to manipulate religion. This is no longer politics as usual, but rather a moral and theological crisis, and thus we are compelled to speak out as faith leaders. This statement is absolutely no tacit endorsement of other candidates, many of whom use the same racial politics often in more subtle ways. But while Donald Trump certainly did not start these long-standing American racial sins, he is bringing our nation’s worst instincts to the political surface, making overt what is often covert, explicit what is often implicit.

Trump’s highly visible and vulgar racial and religious demagoguery presents a danger but also an opportunity—to publicly expose and resist the worst of American values. By confronting a message so contrary to our Christian values, our religious voices can help provide a powerful way to put our true faith and our better American values forward in the midst of national moral confusion and crisis.”


And you thought your church had some weird by-laws. Enjoy…

Twelve Weird Items in Church BylawsThom Rainer
Twelve-Weird-Items-in-Church-Bylaws
“I simply asked them if they were a part of a church with some weird bylaw provisions. Keep in mind, these are provisions in bylaws, not in a policy manual.

Here are my twelve favorites…”


1aa46330d2f701334bbc005056a9545d
Click image for a larger view. Source: Pearls Before Swine

 

Leviticus 14:33-57

The idea of these little devotionals is simple. I want to approach scripture with the understanding that God is speaking. I’m reading through the Bible and listening for God to ask me questions. I expect these questions to be fairly open-ended and plan to carry them in my mind throughout the day. I’ll share these questions with you in the hope that you find them challenging and helpful.

We’re going to be going through a section of scripture where the details may make your reading feel a little tedious…and your stomach a little queasy. Please do your best NOT to skim. Let the images sink in. God made sure this material was preserved and included. Let’s see if we can see why…

Leviticus 14:33-57
33 The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, 34 “When you come into the land of Canaan, which I give you for a possession, and I put a case of leprous disease in a house in the land of your possession, 35 then he who owns the house shall come and tell the priest, ‘There seems to me to be some case of disease in my house.’ 36 Then the priest shall command that they empty the house before the priest goes to examine the disease, lest all that is in the house be declared unclean. And afterward the priest shall go in to see the house. 37 And he shall examine the disease. And if the disease is in the walls of the house with greenish or reddish spots, and if it appears to be deeper than the surface, 38 then the priest shall go out of the house to the door of the house and shut up the house seven days. 39 And the priest shall come again on the seventh day, and look. If the disease has spread in the walls of the house, 40 then the priest shall command that they take out the stones in which is the disease and throw them into an unclean place outside the city. 41 And he shall have the inside of the house scraped all around, and the plaster that they scrape off they shall pour out in an unclean place outside the city. 42 Then they shall take other stones and put them in the place of those stones, and he shall take other plaster and plaster the house.

43 “If the disease breaks out again in the house, after he has taken out the stones and scraped the house and plastered it, 44 then the priest shall go and look. And if the disease has spread in the house, it is a persistent leprous disease in the house; it is unclean. 45 And he shall break down the house, its stones and timber and all the plaster of the house, and he shall carry them out of the city to an unclean place. 46 Moreover, whoever enters the house while it is shut up shall be unclean until the evening, 47 and whoever sleeps in the house shall wash his clothes, and whoever eats in the house shall wash his clothes.

48 “But if the priest comes and looks, and if the disease has not spread in the house after the house was plastered, then the priest shall pronounce the house clean, for the disease is healed. 49 And for the cleansing of the house he shall take two small birds, with cedarwood and scarlet yarn and hyssop, 50 and shall kill one of the birds in an earthenware vessel over fresh water 51 and shall take the cedarwood and the hyssop and the scarlet yarn, along with the live bird, and dip them in the blood of the bird that was killed and in the fresh water and sprinkle the house seven times. 52 Thus he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the bird and with the fresh water and with the live bird and with the cedarwood and hyssop and scarlet yarn. 53 And he shall let the live bird go out of the city into the open country. So he shall make atonement for the house, and it shall be clean.”

54 This is the law for any case of leprous disease: for an itch, 55 for leprous disease in a garment or in a house, 56 and for a swelling or an eruption or a spot, 57 to show when it is unclean and when it is clean. This is the law for leprous disease.

From this passage I hear God asking me:
Are you surprised that I’m still talking about this?
You realize that this kind of physical cleanliness might have been a real issue for my people at this time, but is it possible I’m teaching a larger lesson as well?
What do you think it might be?
Is leprosy like sin, maybe?

 

Like Children

Asher, age 4 -2014
Iris, age 4 – 2011


“Truly, I say to you,
unless you turn
and become like children,
you will never enter
the kingdom of heaven.”

 

I guess the worst thing about growing up is that fun and amazement drift into sporadic entertainment and forced, ritualized behavior. The glow of vocation slips into the monotony of procedure. The exhaustion that comes from playing too hard becomes more effort than it is worth. Comfort is more yearned for than the experience of reading or talking away the night. Joy becomes a matter of observing and reflecting on the almost grotesquely carefree child.

Christ spoke several times of children and of his attraction to them. He thought we needed to be like them, in some ways.

I pray I never mistake atrophy of imagination for maturity. I pray that I never approach Christ so solemnly and so full of the cynicism of years and doubts that I find him distracted while I whine to him.

I pray I never see his eyes wander from me as he searches for a child lost in play.

 

Number thirty-four in God Is No Fool by Lois Cheney



(I’ve always loved this little book since I first discovered it while I was in college. Click the image for purchase info.)